Advances in the milling and processing of grains allowed large-scale separation and removal of the bran and germ, resulting in refined flour that consists mainly of the starchy endosperm. However, the bran and germ contain important nutrients that are lost when the grain is refined.
To be defined as ‘whole grain’, a food product must retain the same relative proportions of its components (bran, germ and endosperm) as they exist in the intact grain.
Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients in our diet (fat and protein being the others). They exist in many forms and are mainly found in starchy foods such as bread, pasta, and rice, as well as in some beverages, e.g. fruit juices and sugar-sweetened drinks.