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Diät & Gewichtskontrolle

Science Briefs

Research conducted by five universities in Texas USA with African American and Hispanic families underscores the relation between portions offered by caregivers and the amounts children consume. The team of researchers performed an in-home observational study with 145 families in Texas to investigate how the amounts served and consumed by children might be associated with the amounts parents served themselves.
Energy intake and expenditure are not the only factors known to influence the success of a dietary intervention in obesity. Led by Professor M. Garaulet from University of Murcia in Spain, researchers from Spain and North America performed a large-scale prospective study to see whether timing of meals could predict weight-loss effectiveness in humans. The study revealed that early eaters lost more weight, and at a higher rate, than volunteers who ate later. At the same time, biomarkers related to obesity and weight loss remained similar between the groups. Based on these findings, researchers concluded that timing of food intake may influence the success of a weight loss therapy.

Researchers from the departments of Food Science and Human Nutrition, and Biomedical Sciences of Iowa State University (USA), found that chewing food longer reduced appetite after eating, but did not lower food intake at the next meal. This was coupled with an increased blood glucose response and higher plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and lower levels of ghrelin, which indicate increased satiety. When the satiety of food is higher, it makes our appetite for eating again stay away for longer.

 

In a review published in the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Dr Macdiarmid from the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health (Aberdeen), addresses the question whether a healthful diet can also be environmentally sustainable. While she finds that it may be possible to achieve a diet that is both healthful and sustainable, one should not automatically assume that they go hand in hand. Consumer understanding of sustainable diets is often poor and a more effective combination of research and communication is needed to establish dietary recommendations which can fulfil both of these societal goals.
Dietary guidelines are usually communicated to broad populations, and this population-level approach may be one of the reasons why many people do not follow them, and do not change their behaviours towards a healthier diet. But if the diet and nutrition of a person was based on a recommendation of their specific needs, then this might change eating behaviours. This is referred to as personalised nutrition. But how can personalised nutrition become a reality? Aside from scientific understanding, successful commercialisation is essential if personalised nutrition is to flourish. As part of the EU funded Food4Me project, researchers from Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands, and the Belgian company Bio-Sense, have identified the key elements of a business model that can move nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition to the next level, and ultimately to success in the market place.
Researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark, and the European Food Information Council (EUFIC) have analysed socio-demographic and attitudinal determinants of nutrition knowledge of food shoppers from six European countries: UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Poland, and Hungary. Main findings include social grade, country of residence and age to directly influence participants’ nutrition knowledge. Furthermore, older people, women and respondents of a higher socio-economic status showed a more active interest in healthy eating. The use of expert sources (physicians, dieticians and health associations) had only a small effect on how low or high the measured nutrition knowledge of participants in this study was.
The direct effects of drinking beverages with added sugar or other caloric sweeteners on bodyweight are difficult to discern. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, published in the journal Obesity Reviews, calls for further robust research into the effect of reducing intake of such beverages by overweight individuals.
Elderly people trying to eat less may benefit from drinking a large glass of water before meals, suggest two studies from the USA.
Women who eat slowly may end up consuming less calories than fast-eating women, despite longer duration of eating occasions.
A large UK study has concluded that our genes may determine as much as 77% of our obesity risk, while environmental factors seem to be less important.
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EUFIC, das Europäische Informationszentrum für Lebensmittel, ist eine gemeinnützige Organisation, die den Medien, Gesundheits- und Ernährungsfachleuten, Erziehern und meinungsbildenden Einrichtungen wissenschaftlich fundierte Informationen über Nahrungsmittelsicherheit und -qualität sowie Gesundheit und Ernährung auf eine für Konsumenten verständliche Weise liefert.

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Letzte Aktualisierung der Website: 23/04/2014
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