Dans cette section, nous présentons des publications scientifiques à propos de nouvelles recherches en Europe mais également du reste du monde, et pouvant intéresser les lecteurs de l’EUFIC. L’EUFIC n’est pas impliqué dans ces recherches, exception faite si les notes le mentionnent.
A large network of scientists from around the world have examined the trends of adult Body Mass Index (BMI) in 200 countries. They found that globally the number of obese individuals has increased from 105 million to 641 million in the last 40 years. The world has transitioned to more obese than underweight people, with the exception of some sub-Saharan and Asian regions. The authors note that, if the current obesity trends continue, there is little chance of meeting the agreed global obesity target for 2025.
18th May 2016 Contaminants in vegetable oils and fats (and foods containing them such as cookies, pastries and others) pose a potential health concern to average consumers for young age groups (infants, toddlers and children under 10 years old). There is also a potential health concern for adolescents, adults and older age groups with high levels of exposure through their diet (i.e those eating larger quantities of foods containing glycidyl esters than the average population). This is the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of 3- and 2-MCPD and their esters and glycidyl esters in food, presented in a report released on 3rd May 2016.
A balanced diet is important for people’s health and health claims are designed to help consumers’ choose healthy food. The question is whether they actually influence consumers’ behaviour and it is therefore essential to know how and in what amount consumers are exposed to claims on food. A recent study found that around one quarter of food products in Europe carry health claims but this figure differs between European countries. Researchers from the EU-funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”) analysed how often and what type of claims and symbols were found on food package and found that one quarter (26%) of all products carried at least one claim. Most of these claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and only 6% health-related ingredient claims. Health claims comprised mainly of general health claims and nutrient and other function claims, while hardly any reduction and disease risk claims and children’s’ development and health claims were found.
A team of researchers from Université Libre de Bruxelles in Brussels, Belgium, have investigated whether the increase of one hour of sleep, in people who normally sleep less than seven hours, resulted in a lower risk of developing diabetes. Indeed, an hour of extra sleep had positive effects on several markers that indicate diabetes risk, including insulin and glucose levels and insulin sensitivity.
One in 10 people fall ill every year from diseases caused by consuming unsafe food and water. The result is 420,000 deaths worldwide of which almost one third concern children under five. These are the first ever estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases reported by the World Health Organization on 3rd December 2015.
Red and processed meats and the risks of cancer – what’s new from the International Agency for Research on Cancer?
A meeting of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the specialized cancer agency of the World Health Organization, was held in October 2015 in Lyon, France. A Working Group of 22 scientists from 10 countries had a task to investigate the potential carcinogenic effects of eating red and processed meats. In an article published in the Lancet, the IARC assessment classified processed meat as carcinogenic and red meat as probably carcinogenic to humans. This classification indicates hazard (whether an agent is capable of causing cancer), but does not measure the risk (likelihood that cancer will occur). Although the link between the consumption of red and processed meats and cancer is not new, the IARC publication has again stirred a discussion about recommendations for meat consumption.
Researchers from the Wageningen University in the Netherlands found that thinking in black and white terms when it comes to food (e.g. thinking of foods as either “good or bad”) can partly explain why the tendency to consciously control food intake is associated with more weight regain. People who follow a rigid “all or nothing” diet approach may be more likely fail to stick with their diet and tend to regain weight in the long-term.
A team of researchers from Canada conducted a large study on the health effects of both saturated and trans fatty acid consumption. They combined data from 70 previously conducted observational studies and looked at the associated roles of these fatty acids in increasing the risk of death, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Overall findings suggested that eating higher amounts of saturated fat was not associated with an increased risk in comparison to lower amounts for these health outcomes. The consumption of higher amounts of trans fat was associated with an increased risk. The authors are cautious drawing conclusions and point to methodological limitations of the included studies and to the fact that these observational studies cannot provide evidence for a cause and effect relationship. Moreover, they warn that one must carefully consider the effects of alternative foods before amending dietary guidelines for saturated and trans fatty acids.