Type of pathogen
Commonly associated foods
Campylobacter (causes Campylobacteriosis)
Diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, nausea, vomiting. Symptoms typically start after 2-5 days and last for 3-6 days.
Raw milk and dairy products, raw/undercooked poultry9
Salmonella (causes Salmonellosis)
Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain. Symptoms usually occur after 6-72 hours and last for 2-7 days. Rarely, it can lead to severe dehydration that can life-threatening, especially in children or the elderly.
Eggs, pork meat, poultry10,11
Yersinia (causes yersiniosis)
Fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea.
Listeria (causes Listeriosis)
Symptoms can range from mild flu-like symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, to serious complications such as meningitis or other potentially life-threatening conditions.
Ready-to-eat foods such as smoked fish, cured meats and soft cheeses12
Certain strains of E. Coli (e.g. EHEC, STEC, VTEC)
Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting. Symptoms typically start after 3-8 days and last for up to 10 days. In rare cases, it can cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), which can cause kidney failure.
Unpasteurised milk and cheese, undercooked meat, raw salad vegetables (e.g.sprouts, spinach and lettuce)13
Diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain
Uncooked shellfish, raw fruits and vegetables, but any food can become contaminated through improper handling14
Liver inflammation, fever, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice. Not everyone will show all symptoms.
Uncooked shellfish, raw fruit and vegetables15
Liver inflammation. In rare cases, it can lead to liver failure. Many people will not show any symptoms.
Raw/undercooked pork meat and liver16
Most people show no symptoms. Infection in pregnant women can lead to brain or vision abnormalities in the baby, miscarriage or stillbirth.
Undercooked meat, raw fruit and vegetables17
Scombroid fish poisoning
Tingling or burning of the mouth or throat, rash, headache, diarrhea, usually starting within one hour after eating.
Fish (tuna, sardines, anchovies, mackerel).